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Year 5

Lesson Title: Customer choices - A fit for everyone

Subject Area: Economics & Business
Year Five (10-11 year olds)

Teacher Notes

Resources and Materials:

  • Interactive whiteboard
  • 3 egg cartons (provide 1 of cage, barn and free range with prices attached)
  • ‘30 Hands Learning’ or similar app for presenting with images, photos or slides

Source, consumer, producer, produce, product, stored, location, sustainable, impact, rural, urban, development, biosecurity, conflict, populated, residents, council, vaccination, environment, economy, practices, fertiliser, livestock, and industry.

Higher Order Thinking Skills (Bloom’s Taxonomy):

  • Knowledge
  • Comprehension
  • Analysis
  • Synthesis

Extension/Open-Ended Questions:
Investigate the farming systems of other egg producing countries (eg. China, US, India) and compare and contrast to Australia’s egg farming practices.


In this lesson students will be introduced to the three main types of commercial egg farm systems used throughout Australia. They will learn about the challenges surrounding supply and demand in the egg industry and the importance of understanding consumer choices.

Aims & Objectives

Upon completion of this lesson students will demonstrate a basic understanding of:

  • The nature of limited resources versus unlimited needs and wants
  • Choices and decisions that need to be made regarding consumer demand
  • The different methods of egg farming and why there is consumer choice in Australia
Australian Curriculum

Key Learning Area:
Humanities and Social Sciences (HASS)
Economics and Business
The difference between needs and wants and why choices need to be made about how limited resources are used ( ACHASSK119)


Plan, draft and publish imaginative, informative and persuasive print and multimodal texts, choosing text structures, language features, images and sound appropriate to purpose and audience ( ACELY1704)

Cross-curriculum Priorities

General Capabilities

  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology Capability

Lesson Introduction

  1. Conduct the pre-test Pop Quiz.
  2. Use the interactive activity Which Farm Is Which? Show students photographs of the three different types of egg farming practices that exist in Australia.
  3. Ask the students to look closely at each photograph. Read through the series of statements listed in random order, students need to match each statement to its’ correct picture.
  4. Explain that Australia has three different systems of commercial egg farming practices namely, cage, barn and free range. Students correctly label each photograph with the egg farming system it belongs to.
  5. Pose the question ‘Why do you think there are three different types of commercial egg farming, if all eggs come from a hen?’ Discuss. Explain that consumers have different needs and make decisions based on the price and the way hens are housed. Some people choose to buy their eggs based on price alone, the most affordable being caged eggs, whilst others like their eggs to come from hens that have been housed in more traditional ways, pre-World War II over 50 years ago. These are free range eggs. Some people like an in-between option and choose barn laid eggs.
  6. Students view video of the three types of farming systems, Types of Egg Farms.

Main Body of Teaching:

  1. Hands on experience: Provide the class with examples of a cage, barn and free-range egg carton. The cartons should include the price, as well as an egg from each system (ensure you have no students with egg allergies in your class before undertaking this activity). Students spend ten minutes in small groups identifying which type of egg farming system was used to produce the eggs, the cost, the nutritional information panel, the size of each egg etc. Using the, Compare and Contrast Table, provided in the interactive lesson students compare and contrast their findings on the interactive whiteboard.
  2. Divide the class into three equal groups and assign each one of the three egg farming systems. Students read through the information provided on their particular system and identify the advantages and disadvantages in terms of cost, efficiency, animal welfare, food safety and environmental impact. Define the terms efficiency, animal welfare and environmental impact. Students may need several lessons to complete this task.
  3. Each group creates a visual presentation of the advantages and disadvantages of their system using a presentation app such as Prezi or a similar app. Students create presentations based on the information they have researched and present their findings to the class via the interactive whiteboard.
  4. Extension idea: As a class, revise the structure and language of the discussion writing genre. Using the interactive whiteboard, jointly construct a discussion arguing the points for and against each egg farming system.


  1. Conduct a mini class debate on the topic ‘What egg farming system in Australia has the most benefits to the consumer?’  Students argue their viewpoint from the perspective of the hen, the consumer and the farmer. As the teacher, adjudicate the debate and provide feedback to your students.
  2. Conduct the post-test Pop Quiz.


  1. Interview your parents/caregivers on the type of eggs they purchase for consumption in the home. Design a list of 5 questions to ask. For example:
    • a. What type of eggs do you buy for our family?
    • b. Do you buy eggs based on price?
    • c. Do you ever think about where the eggs you buy come from?
    • d. If the price of the eggs you buy were to increase, would you consider buying a different type? Why or why not?
    • e. Why do you choose to buy ____________ and not the other types of eggs?
  2. In class follow-up: Use a graph making app to collate the results and find out which system of egg farming is the most popular choice of consumers in the class. Provide reasons for your choice?

Pre and Post Assessment Content:
Conduct this online in the interactive lesson.

Pre-Lesson Q&A
Question Answer
1. In Australia, there are _____________ different commercial egg farming systems. Two, three, five
2. Having these different systems means ________________ can make a choice about where their eggs come from. Consumers, hens, farmers
3. __________ egg farming is the main system used, accounting for about 51% of commercially produced eggs in Australia. Cage, barn, free range
4. Free range farming is more _________________ to operate than cage systems because of the land required to build housing sheds and pastures. Time consuming, difficult, expensive
5. Consumers choose to buy eggs based on __________ and how the hens are kept on a farm Feather colour, hen age, price
Post-Lesson Q&A
Question Answer
1. Australia consumers are free to ________________ eggs farmed by the method they prefer whether it were cage, barn or free range. Buy, collect, sell
2. Each system of egg farming has __________________and disadvantages. Pests, benefits, farmers
3. Cage farming was first developed after ____________________ to allow egg farmers to supply high numbers of eggs to consumers. It also decreased mortality and allowed better disease control. Vietnam War, World War II, Gulf War
4. On cage farms approximately _________ hens are kept in each cage which is big enough for them to stand and move around. 7-10, 20-23, 4 to 5
5. Caged egg farming provides hens with ______________from weather, predators, disease and parasites. Protection, vaccination, biosecurity
6. Barn hens are housed in large sheds and usually have access to litter in which they can______________, sleep (roost) and lay eggs in nesting boxes. dust bathe, socialise, dance
7. The sheds in barn systems can be bird-proofed which reduces the risk of ______________spread by wild birds. Manure, noise, disease
8. Free range hens have large areas of open ground to roam and _____________, addressing concerns about animal welfare raised by some consumers. Forage, mate, escape
9. Free range hens can also return to weather-proof sheds for _____________ (sleeping), laying (nesting) feeding, drinking and protection. Kipping, roosting, napping
10. Some free range egg farmers keep trained dogs with their hens when they are outside, to protect them from ________________. Poachers, predators, bad weather
Based on Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority (ACARA) materials downloaded from the Australian Curriculum website on March 2018. ACARA does not endorse any changes that have been made to the Australian Curriculum.
©2018, Australian Egg Corporation Limited (except where otherwise indicated). You may use this material for non-commercial educational purposes provided all acknowledgements are retained.


©Australian Egg Corporation Limited